Technologies of Beneficiation Scientific Research center

1 Flowsheets for copper-zinc ores of a complex composition with an increased tennantite content at the sample of Zapadno-Ozernoe and Uzelginskoe deposits

1.1 Zapadno-Ozernoe deposit

Specific features of deposit ores: complex material composition, the presence of colloform textures, massive and metacolloidal textures, dissemination of sulfide minerals, tight association of minerals between each other. Main ore minerals: pyrite, sphalerite, tennantite, chalcopyrite, covelline, chalcosine. A variety of copper minerals is also characteristic: tennantite - 55-63 % (relat.), secondary copper sulfides, chalcopyrite and the presence of colloform pyrite. The peculiarity of copper-zinc ores is a fast oxidizability.

A technology of collectively-selective flotation with a copper settlement from a water phase by sodium hydrosulfide for copper-zinc ores of an upper layer


  • Copper concentrate was received with a copper mass fraction 18,37%,  when extracting 57,49 % copper content;
  • Zinc concentrate was received containing 41,28% of zinc, when extracting 48,86% of zinc content.

A technology of collectively-selective flotation to get a zinc concentrate of high quality in a form of froth and flotation tails for copper-zinc ores of lower horizons


  • Copper concentrate was received with a copper mass fraction 19,10-18,86 % when extracting 79,70-79,56 % copper content;
  • Zinc concentrate was received containing 50,21-50,17 % of zinc, when extracting 60,25 % of zinc content – in a form of a froth product & 54,12 % -in a form of a flotation tails.

1.2 Uzelginskoe deposit

Specific features of ores of the deposit upper layer: the presence of several varieties of pyrite, emulsive dissemination of pyrite in sphalerite and chalcopyrite, thin mixtures “pyrite- sphalerite”, “pyrite- chalcopyrite”, “pyrite- fahl ore (tennantite)”. Copper content 1,01-1,02 %, zinc – 2,45-3,00 %, sulphur – 34,00-44,60 %.

A technology of collectively-selective flotation with a development of a technological and reagent modes of beneficiation


  • Copper concentrate was received with a copper mass fraction 18,80-19,01 % when extracting 70,97-78,13 % copper content;
  • Zinc concentrate was received with a zinc mass fraction 48,98-50,08 % when extracting 71,78-81,80 % zinc content.

Results of studies will be applied during the industrial processing of copper- zinc ores at Uchalinskaya concentrating plant.

2 A new technological additive Х1234 for beneficiation of disseminated copper-zinc and polymetallic ores

The technological additive Х1234 is a complex mixture of polymeric compounds based on modified polymethylene naphthalene sulphonates.
In combination with main depressors of zinc minerals- sodium sulphite and zink sulfate, the technological additive intensifies depression of zinc minerals when reducing depressors in 2,5 – 4 times.

Using the combination of reagents, depressors with the additive Х1234 during the concentration of copper-zinc ores enabled to decrease losses of zinc with a copper concentrate by 8,50-10,66 % when increasing the zinc extraction to a zinc concentrate.

The feeding the additive Х1234 to a technological process when concentrating polymetallic ores enables to increase the depression of zinc minerals during decreasing losses of zinc with the copper concentrate by 1,50-2,00%, with the lead concentrate by 3,60-4,00 % and increasing extraction of zinc to the zinc concentrate by 7,00-8,00 %. The use of the technological additive during the concentration of polymetallic ores showed the possibility to get not only saleable concentrates and increase metals extraction but to reduce main reagents-depressors of zinc minerals, as well as to reduce process flotation operations.

3 Flowsheets for scarn magnetite ores of Taezhnoe and Desovskoe minefield

Specific features of deposits ores:  iron content in a base ore of Taezhnoe deposit is 37,8%, and 27,8% in Desovskoe deposit. 

3.1 A technology of a dry magnetic concentration


  • A sintering ore output is 25,0 % , iron content in the sintering ore is 59,0 %;
  • The output of final tailings amounted to 18,0 %. Total iron content in tailings is 8,0 %, magnetite iron 1,0 %;
  • There was defined a dependency of iron extraction to a sintering ore on iron content in it when changing operating parameters of the work of a dry magnetic separator.

3.2 A technology of biphasic grinding and concentration

Result: a magnetite concentrate with 67,0% copper content was received.

3.3 The technology of dehydrating tailings of the wet magnetic separation

Specific features of deposits ores:  iron content in a base ore 28,1 %. Base size 12-0 mm.


  • There were separated up to 13% of dry magnetic separation tailings with Fe total content of 12.7%, 1,0 % magnetite;
  • A magnetite concentrate with 69,3% Fe content and low content of harmful impurities. The output of the concentrate was 29,38 %, Fe extraction to the concentrate is 72,46 %. Currently process regulations were developed for designing “Tarynakhsky” GOK with an annual capacity of 27,6 mln. tons of ore.

4 Technologies of dry and wet magnetic dressing of ferruginous quartzites of Tarynakhskoe and Gorkitskoe deposits

Specific features of deposits ores:  iron content in a base ore 28,1 %. Base size 12-0 mm.


  • There were separated up to 13% of dry magnetic separation tailings with Fe total content of 12.7%, 1,0 % magnetite;
  • A magnetite concentrate with 69,3% Fe content and low content of harmful impurities. The output of the concentrate was 29,38 %, Fe extraction to the concentrate is 72,46 %. Currently process regulations were developed for designing “Tarynakhsky” GOK with an annual capacity of 27,6 mln. tons of ore.

5 Technologies of dry and wet magnetic dressing of titanium magnetite ores at the “Tebinbulak” deposit (Uzbekistan)

Specific features of deposits ores: Fe content- 16,1 %, titanium dioxide - 1,9 %, vanadic pentoxide - 0,18 %.


  • There were separated up to 33,0% of final tailings with the magnetite Fe content less 1%;
  • The output of dry magnetic separation tailings was increased in 2 times (while reducing the size from 25 - 0 up to 12 - 0 mm) that decreases the material amount supplied to grinding. 
  • Titanium magnetite vanadium containing concentrate was received with Fe content of 65%, titanium dioxide - 3,1%, vanadic pentoxide- 0,68 %. The concentrate output is 10 %. The magnetite Fe extraction to the concentrate is 90 %;
  • The technology enables to use recycle water in an internal water cycle by 90-95%, which is of special importance in low water deserted regions of Uzbekistan.

Currently process regulations are developed for designing a mine & processing plant with an annual capacity of 22 mln. tons of base ore. 

A technology of agglomeration and pellets firing was developed. Tasks to reach required key figures (strength properties, yield ratio, compression strength) were completed. Besides, there were solved issues of providing key figures specific for titanium magnetite material that are necessary for process needs of further production areas (optimal basicity index, chemical composition of charge).

The production of a high-basic agglomerate and non-flux pellets was recommended. The resulting modes allow receiving raw-material agglomerates, which meet all the requirements of a blast-furnace production area, and providing the receipt of the raw material, which is not inferior to the products quality of "Kachkanarsky” GOK. During the execution of works a problem was identified, dealing with a high content of titanium oxide in a slag of blast-furnace smelting. Two main solution approaches were proposed.

One of them was to add a high-silica middling product poor in titanium, received while concentrating ores of Tebinbulak deposit to the sintering mixture.

The second one was the additional charging to a blast-furnace charge of materials, purchased in some other places. In particular, the additional charging of sideritic ore of Bakalskoe mine group was taken into consideration. Process regulations for the blast-furnace and converter smelting of the charge as per a method “duplex process” similar to NTMK with repreparation of a vanadium slag up to conditions of the marketable product.

6 A technology of gravity gold reextraction with the use of ultra-fine grinding

There was conducted pilot testing of a centrifugal concentrator Knelson KC-CVD6 with a continuous discharge of concentrates in the technology of finely dispersed gold with the use of a process “carbon-in-pulp”. It showed high efficiency of mineral concentration with undisclosed gold in a heavy fraction, concentrate grinding in a bead mill up to the size of 2-30 mym and its further cyaniding jointly with concentration tailings.

Result: gold extraction to a final product was increased by 2-6%.

7 New technologies for processing oxidized nickel ores

  • Technology for preparation of oxidized nickel ores to agitational and heap sulphuric-acid leaching of Nickel and Cobalt;
  • Technologies for conducting processes of agitational and heap leaching with Nickel & Cobalt extraction from product solutions by a method of sorption in pulp. Modes of sorption & processing of productive solutions with the receipt of salts of Cobalt and Nickel are worked out.
  • Technology for preparation and agitational sulphuric-acid leaching of ore enables to extract up to 80 – 85 % of Nickel &85 – 90 % of Cobalt from poor oxidized nickel ores of a ferrous type to the product solution. For conducting efficient heap leaching there was developed a technology including ore grinding, charging of the grinded ore with stabilizing additives, charge pelletizing and firing with vapor of generated pellets under special conditions. Heap leaching technology of fired pellets enables to extract 78 – 83 % of Nickel & 85 - 90 % of Cobalt within 18 days while feeding a leaching solution in a circulation mode by extra adding of sulphuric acid to the product solution.
  • Technology for selective deposition of Nickel and Cobalt from product solutions in a form of a selective sulphide concentrate with Nickel content
  • 45 – 50 %, Cobalt up to 4 – 5 %, Fe up to 5 – 7 %
  • Technology for Nickel deposition from a product solution of magnesium oxide suspensions to get hydroxide containing 35-43% of Nickel when extracting from the solution to the concentrate not less 96,5%.

8 «Dry technologies» of concentration

8.1 Application of «dry technologies» for concentration of titanium- zirconia placers

In association with IMGRE works were conducted on a process estimation of the possibility to process ore sands by using dry concentration methods for objects of a Stavropolsky placer region, which differed in content of a sum of ore minerals (ilmenite, rutile, zircon) 84,7 kg/m3(area 1) and 54,7 kg/m3(area 2).

There were carried out preliminary studies, which were aimed at the dressability of samples material as per a traditional “wet” technology.

The major concentration process is based on distinctive physical properties of ore minerals: presence of  ilmenite’s magnetic properties, which rutile does not possess, while rutile having conductivity, which zircon doesn’t possess.


  • There was developed a water-free technology to get saleable ore concentrates at high extraction (not less 88%)
  • There was received a new deficit & highly liquid marketable product – glauconitic concentrate with 6,5% output of the initial volume of mined sands;    
  • There was received a quartz concentrate of high quality, output – around 10%. The extra volume of nonmetallic products increases the total annual value of marketable products more than twice as much. 

Operating costs of both technologies are nearly equal by average ratio of the “wet” technology to the “dry” technology- 1:1,025. The application of the “dry” concentration technology doesn’t require to construct tailings facilities, that reduces capital investments to a concentrating plant by 15-17%. Therefore, applying “dry” or “combined” concentration technology of titanium- zirconia sands enables to increase the economic efficiency of their development.

8.2 «Dry technologies» for concentration of copper bearing middling products

8.1 Technology for processing copper bearing middling products of metallurgical enterprises by using dry methods

Technology enables:

  • to get concentrates with a high copper content in size grades:- 3,0+1,0 mm, -1,0+0,315 mm; -0,315+0,020 mm;
  • to realize efficient continuous processing of base middling products (screenings-out) in significantly different electric separation modes of separate classes. 

9 Technologies for concentration of technogenic raw materials

9.1 Technologies for copper reextraction from slags of the metallurgical production with the application of a bead mill by the example of processing waste aged slags of JSC “Uralelectromed” and slag flotation tailings of the metallurgical production JSC “SUMZ”.

Results: copper extraction to the concentrate was increased by 11,20% in slags of the metallurgical production JSC “SUMZ” and by 12,59% while concentrating slags from JSC “Uralelectromed” company.

9.2 Technology for concentration of slowly cooled slag under conditions of JSC “SUMZ”.

Result: increase of copper extraction to a copper concentrate by 12-15%.

9.3 Technologies for processing oily scale of the rolling production


  • Technology renders possible to increase Fe content in iron ore concentrates from 62-65% up to 70%;
  • To reduce (up to 50%) the prime cost of agglomerates due to replacing the expensive iron ore concentrate by the oil-free scale with Fe content of 68-70%.

Studies performed on the agglomeration process by using CHMK charge showed significant performance gains of an agglomachine when using the oil-free scale. The technology is characterized by lack of wastes (secondary technogenic formations), prevents oil combustion, makes possible to utilize unlined furnaces having significantly smaller mass and requiring less operating costs. The technology payback period is around 1 year.

9.4 Technologies for processing dusts of the steel industry

Specific features of dusts — high concentration of zinc.


  • The technology allows solving complex problems of processing wastes of the metallurgical production;
  • enables to “compensate for the deficit of scrap steel” for arc furnaces;
  • enables to get 2 marketable  products from the scale, that provides for its economic efficiency: metallized product that can be used in a traditional iron production and zinc fumes with zinc oxide content more than 65%.

The technology underwent production testing at JSC “Metallurgical plant n/a A.K. Serov”. Under industrial conditions there was confirmed the technology working capacity and zinc fumes as well as metallized pellets qualified for blast-furnace smelting were received. Process regulations were developed on designing the installation for processing zinc dusts.

9.5 Technology for producing fuel briquettes.

The essence of the technology consists in briquetting of coke fines that cannot be used in shaft furnaces when producing copper by the reason of the low size.

Industrial testing of the briquetting technology underwent at the “Polymetals production” branch of JCS “Uralelectromed”. Resulting briquettes were used during copper concentrates smelting instead of coarse coke. Smelting of briquettes instead of coke showed within 3 days that consumption figures of coke remain at the same level. Improvement of a furnace run was recorded. At this, the cost of briquettes from coke fines considering the prime cost of a production area is significantly lower than the cost of the coarse coke.

9.6 Technology for concentration of red muds of the alumina industry based on the concentration of red muds of the Ural aluminum plant

Result: there was obtained iron concentrate containing total Fe -50% and yield of 35% of original red mud. After agglomeration, the iron concentrate is appropriate for smelting. The technology underwent pilot plant tests, and process regulations were developed on designing of a pilot production unit at JSC “RUSAL”.

10 Technologies for hydrometallurgical & metallurgical processing of non-ferrous metals

  • Research was performed and process regulations were developed on designing a production unit of copper heap leaching at JSC “Svyatogor” of UMMC- Holding company (Krasnouralsk). The production capacity of the heap leaching unit is 528000 tons of ore per year. The output of the marketable copper in the concentrate – 2300 tons/year
  • Process regulation were performed for a construction project of new tank house with an annual capacity of 90 thous. tons of marketable zinc for JSC “Electrozinc” (Vladikavkaz). The basis of regulations comprises world-class technical solutions developed by «Outotec» company.

11 Efficient methods of preliminary ores concentration

11.1 Technology for increasing copper extraction to copper concentrate while using fine vibrating screening in the ore preparation cycle


  • enables to increase weight ratio of cooper in the copper concentrate by 1.5 %, copper extraction to the copper concentrate by 2.3 %, extraction of ready flotation size grades by 16%, efficiency of a classification process by 10-30%;
  • enables to decrease ore slurrying in disintegration processes by 6%;
  • enables to improve separating characteristics by 50% and enhance the weight ratio of disclosed copper sulfides by 10%.

11.2 Technology for preliminary concentration of mineral raw material based on methods of x-ray- radiometric separation

  • technology for X-ray- radiometric separation in a processing process of Copper-Zinc ores from Gaisky deposit (non-ferrous metals ores) enables to separate 15,5% of final tailings with weight ratio of copper less 0.2%, zinc- 0.1%; to increase the weight ratio of Copper and Zinc in a payable ore delivered to a flotation concentration, by 20-22%;
  • implementing X-ray- radiometric separation of manganese ores from Usinsky deposit (ferrous metals ores) enables on the one side to separate the concentrate of the top and first grades with weight ratio of manganese, 36,0 % & 25,2 % respectively, in their yield 10,84 & 31,50 % respectively, on the other side- to separate 30% of tailings with a dump content of manganese;
  • implementing X-ray- radiometric separation to a processing process of graphite ores from Soyuznoe deposit (nonmetallic minerals) enables to separate coarse tailings with a yield corresponding to the degree of dilution and thereby, to increasethe quality of the graphite ore entering to further operations of “deep” concentration.

12 Unconventional ways of ore pretreatment for glass sands prior to concentration

For studying concentration processes of quartz sands of JSC “Atomstroykomplex” there was designed and manufactured an ultrasonic installation MO-156. Preliminary ore pretreatment consisted in studying impacts of attritioning & screening operations on the change of a material component due to the increase of small particles extraction. For more detailed study of the process several attritioning modes were selected.

Resulting from the study of ore pretreatment operations impact on the change of the quartz sands material composition of the II Kamenskoe deposit there was developed a process concentration scheme of the quartz sand making possible to reduce total Fe content from 0,4 to 0,04%. 

The technology is applied when designing the plant for the production of bottle glass.

13 Technology for direct reduction of titanomagnetite

Metallization technology by type of Itmk3 & Hi-QIP for titanomagnetites. Studies showed that while realizing Itmk3 & Hi-QIP processes nearly all of titanium gets to a slag, vanadium goes into pig iron, providing a low rate of reduction in comparison with a blast-furnace process- less than 350kg/t of pig iron and getting slag with a high content of titanium oxide in a pelletized form, that excludes its crystallization when tapping from blast furnaces. The technology was tested in pilot conditions of the Institute.